One of the interesting things about working with a database are the limitations inherent within the database. As you can see from the posts in recent months on New York brewing history, there is a fabulous amount of information in the New York's state library system's online newspaper database. The opportunity is still limited by one or two natural limits within a records. For the most part, I am looking at advertising notices and legal notices. Who has what beer to sell and whose brewing partnership has broken up. This means that if your market is local you may not be using a newspaper to spread the news. It also means if you business is successful and stable you may not need to post a legal notice. As a result, it can be considered a record of the breweries which are big enough or volatile enough to need to post a notice. Still, smaller players that the big breweries discussed the other day do make appearances. Some addresses appear to be passed from hand to hand as tenant brewers come and go. Some are only referenced as landmarks near the actual subject of the news clipping. Let's see if we can get a few of those a bit better organized and see what we can see.
A brewery can seem to move location. Under that thumbnail, you will see that starting in March 1788 the partnership of Appleby and Matlack operated out of 36 Chatham Street. We know it doesn't last as Appleby is operating out of Eden's place by 1791. He had previously been brewing at Catherine Street. It's a bit up-Manhattan compared to the pre-Revolutionary locations of choice. The city is growing. What was Chatham Street then is now Park Row between Nassau Street and the Bowery. Chatham Street ran west to east just to the south of the Fresh Water Pond as you can see on the ever handy 1865 Veile map. In August 1793, the brewer "M. McLachlan" was offering up London Porter and Brown Stout at "the Brewery, 36 Chatham Street." Yet, in December 1794, "M.McLachlan" adds a partner, Robertson,* and operates out of 139 Chatham Street. Just a typo or a street renumbering? Dunno. But on 6 January 1796, a one-half share in "that valuable brewery 136 Chatham Street" was for sale in the Daily Advertiser. Death did not cure the problem. As you can see up top in the notice from July 1802, the brewer is now...errr... was Michael McLaughlin and not McLachlan and the address has become No 143 Chatham Street But is it all one brewery? Dunno. At least it was a fabulous one wherever it was - "the finest and most convenient stand of any in the city." Goody. I hate records.
In other cases, one or more breweries seem to hover in a zone near common landmarks. In 1799, John P. Groshon placed his brewery up for sale by putting a notice in the 8 February edition of the Daily Advertiser. The ad helpfully states that the brewery was "in Barley Street near the Hospital." Barley Street is shown in that diagram up there attached to a 1796 deed. It's just to the right to the triangle. That triangle is Duane Park and Barley Street was absorbed into Duane Street in 1809. Interesting. Comparing the 1865 Veile map to the 1776 Hinton map, we can see that what became Barley/Duane Street, as noted in blue, is only one block long at the beginning of the American Revolution, at the outskirts. But by 1797 it reaches and turns south all the way to Rose Street. Which made it a long street and one that crosses Chatham Street just south of the Fresh Water Pond, near Coulthard's next gen creepily notorious brewery at Five Points.
Another brewing business has a Barley Street address. In 1792, in the 11 October edition of the Daily Advertiser Henry Snyder and Peter Bertine announce the dissolution of their partnership. The brewery is located on Barley Street where Bertine will continue to brew in his own name. And the ad goes on to say that Snyder has erected a brewhouse "opposite the hospital in Great George Street." Groshons in the later 1790s was near the hospital, too. Or at least a hospital. One was founded in 1771 with a charter from King George III which was located, according to Wikipedia, on Broadway between Anthony Street (now Duane Street) and Catherine Street (now Worth Street). Seems like the right address. In the exceedingly handy book The City of New York in the Year of Washington's Inauguration, 1789 by T.E.V. Smith published a century after the fact, the following is stated about Broadway aka Great George Street**:
…below this, on a plot of ground 440 feet by 455 feet, afterwards bounded by Broadway, Anthony, Church, and Duane Streets, stood the Hospital. The erection of this building had been begun on the 27th of July 1773, the basement walls being of brown stone and the upper portion of blue stone, but it had no sooner been completed than the interior was destroyed by fire on the 28th of February 1775.. and lack of funds prevented the opening of the building as a hospital until the 3rd of January 1791 when eighteen patients were admitted... Below the Hospital, on the northeast corner of the present Duane Street and Broadway stood an old brewery...
That being the case, the brewery opposite the hospital was run by Snyder in 1792 and Groshon's was seemingly near it in 1799. That makes sense. A notice published on 25 April 1795 in the Daily Adverstiser for the lease of a house described it as being next to Groshon's brewery "near the Broadway" - not on it. And just a few weeks before Groshon's partnership with Caleb Pell was announced as dissolved in the 6 April edition of the Gazette. It's location was given as No.3 Barley Street roadway. Which means in the 1790s there was a cross-roads at Barley Street and Broadway with likely Bertine's brewery at the northeast corner as well as Snyder's then Groshon's brewery a bit west of it at No.3 Barley Street. Probably. Maybe. No, it was Bertine and Groshon at No. 3 according to this notice of dissolution.from May 1794. Crap. I hate records.
OK, let's see if we can unpack this. Click on that thumbnail of the auction notice. It is from the Daily Advertiser of 4 June 1788 and, fabulously, references the deceased Anthony A Rutgers, Leonard Lispenard as well as Peter Bertine. And it places Bertine as brewing in that year at 3 Barley Street. It appears the sequence for that location is: Bertine (1788), Bertine and Snyder (-1792), Bertine and Groshon (-1794) then Groshon (1794-). Groshon appears to stay at Barley Street into the next century as he still brewing there in 1803 and is named as a ward tax collector in 1804, both notices stating his address as No 7 Barley Street. So, Groshon seem to be a stable factor to work around. And, if you click on the other thumbnail, in 1801 there is another brewery operating "opposite the Hospital, Broadway" by the name of Steenbach and Brown. They are mentioned again in a notice in 1802 as being "nearly opposite the hospital" on Broadway.*** Opposite the hospital and around the corner from the hospital appear to be two distinct breweries.
At least three breweries. That's what I think. One on Chatham Street, one on Brewery Street and one of Broadway opposite the hospital. Probably. Maybe four. Maybe McLachlan moved from 36 to 136 Chatham mid-career. Could be. Maybe. I hate records.
Update: Click on the map below:
That is a detail from Anderson's 1796 map of New York. It shows the relationship between the hospital and the two breweries near it. It also shows how Barley Street is still undeveloped one block west of Broadway. See Rhinelander's empire on the Hudson? Notice how the hospital sat back from the streets. Here is an image of it in 1791. Here is a photo from 1865 with the City enclosing it except to the front. So when these two breweries were established and operating through the 1790s they are at the edge of the City and facing open spaces. As the streets rapidly develop to meet the tripling of the population by 1810 that reality ceases and the function of brewing arguably moves on.
Note: on 21 March over on Facebook, Gerry Lorentz added a lot of detail which I would not want to lose to the internets. Here is what he wrote:
Alan, as you note there is a lot of confusion in terms of “who’s on first” with breweries in the area at that point in time. The situation in Chatham Street and in those surrounding it was murky in more than just the water. Below are some random thoughts on some of the folks and the area that you discuss. Of course, this just might make everything even more murky.
As you note, Michael McLachlan had more than one brewery on Chatham St., one at 36 and one at 139. The latter was probably connected both physically and business-wise with that of Thomas Robinson, who was operating out of 137 Chatham Street in 1796. He was likely the same as the Thomas Robertson who was operating on Greenwich Road in 1791, and whose brother William was operating another brewery at Grand and Fourth that same year. The brewery at 139 Chatham was being run by William Street and Thomas Stevens as Street and Stevens from 1808 into the mid-1810s. They operated it while testamentary things were worked out for Michael McLachlan, whose widow had married Phillip Garniss, another brewer operating in the area. In 1809 the property, now noted as being at 165 Chatham Street, was going through Chancery after Jane McLachlan/Garniss’s death. The property at 139 Chatham Street seemed to have stayed in the McLachlan family, as it was back to being operated by a “Michael McLachlan” in the 1860s.
I think that you are talking about more than one George Appleby. The older George, the one operating the old spruce beer brewery, died in 1791, and his wife Margaret continued to operate a brewery out of their home on Harmon Street for a number of years. So I think that the Appleby & Matlack George is George II – but I could be wrong. White Matlack lived at 33-34 Chatham Street, so he was pretty convenient to the brewery.
In 1790 “Snyder and Bartine” were noted as operating the brewery at 2 Barley Street, which might or might not be the 3 Barley Street brewery that you note. It’s interesting that Henry Snyder opened a new brewery on Great George, as it was Peter Bertine, or Bartine (and Bartin as he’s also noted) who originally owned property on that street, so it could be that part of the deal was Snyder buying Bertine’s property.
Anthony Steenback, or Steinbach, or Steenbach, operated a brewery on Catherine street “nearly opposite the hospital” at the turn of the century (Steinbach & [Anthony] Brown), so we can assume that this brewery was located at the corner of Catherine and Broadway. Anthony Brown operated a brewery at 338 Broadway in 1796. In 1796 there was also a Thomas Brown operating a brewery on Lumber Street and a James Brown & Co. located at 334 Broadway, which might mean that Anthony Brown was part of more than one brewing business at the time. In 1808 Steenbach & Brown brewed out of 332 Broadway. This is essentially the corner of Broadway and Worth Streets today. This was turned over to Peter Snyder in 1813. In the 1820s Peter Snyder & Co ran the brewery at 334 Broadway, as well as operating a separate facility at 93 Anthony Street (which could have been modern Worth St. or modern Duane St.). It appears that 332-338 Broadway was all brewery in the first part of the nineteenth century. There was a brewery run by John A. Brown in the 1840s, although the address at that point was 376 Broadway, which might represent a shift in street numbering or a whole new place.
A John Groshon was still operating a brewery in 1829, although this would be the son, as his mother Catherine is noted as a widow in that same year. The elder Groshon worked in partnership with Matthew S. Slowly in the early 1800s at 8 barley Street (although Groshon is noted at 7 Barley Street), and with Thomas Prowitt (or Prewitt), at 126-128 Duane Street in the 1810s, and on his own after that. He was noted as John Groshon, John Grosslein, and John Piergoson (rather than John Pier Groshon as he had been styled earlier). The oddities of spellings and the vagaries of hearing by those taking names at the time, I suppose. His son, John Groshon (without the P.), worked with his father in the Duane Street brewery and carried it on after his father died.
Some others brewing on Chatham Street in the early 1790s include Lawrence Arkison (at 10), George Janeway at the corner of Chatham and Magazine (70 Chatham), and William Janeway (68 Chatham) and his future partner, Peter Vanzandt at 66 Chatham. Again, these three addresses but could all be one brewery. In the 1810s John Mounsey operated a brewery at 181 Chatham (181 1-2 Chatham), and this had been in operation before he took over control, although I’m not sure who ran it previous to that time.